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3.WTO的協議

3,Agreements of WTO

WTO負責監督大約60個具有國際法律效力的協議。成員國在加人之時,必須簽署并批準全部的WTO協議。下面將介紹一些最為重要的協議。

 

The WTO oversees about 60 different agreements which have the status of international legal texts. WTO member countries must sign and ratify all WTO agreements on accession. A discussion of some of the most important agreements follows.

  1)《農業協議》在WTO成立之初的1995年就已經生效!掇r業協議》具有三個核心理念或“支柱”:國內支持、市場準人和出口補貼。

(1)The Agreement on Agriculture(AOA) came into effect with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995. The AOA has three central concepts, or” pillars”: domestic support, market access and export subsidies.

  2)《服務貿易總協定》的創設是為了將多邊貿易體系擴展至服務業。 該協議在19951月生效。

(2)The General Agreement on Trade in Services was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector. The Agreement entered into force in January 1995.

   3)《與貿易有關的知識產權協定》對多種形式的知識產權(IP)的管理制定了最低標準。該協議的談判時間是在烏拉圭回合臨近結束的1994年。

(3)The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property(IP) regulation. It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round in 1994.

(4)《衛生和植物檢疫措施實施協議》(也稱為《SPS協議》)于烏拉圭回合期間進行談判,在1995WTO成立之時開始生效。根據《SPS協議 WTO對成員國制定的食品安全以及動植物健康的政策作出了限制。

   4The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures-also known as the SPS Agreement was negotiated during the Uruguay Round, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995. Under the SPS Agreement, the WTO sets constraints on members’ policies relating to food safety as well as ainmal and plant health.

(5)《技術性貿易壁壘協定》是世界貿易組織的一個國際條約。其目標在于確保技術談判和標準以及檢測私驗證程序不會對貿易產生不必要的障礙。

(5)The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade is an international treaty of the World Trade Organization. The object ensures that technical negotiations and standards, as well as testing and certification procedures, do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade.

(6)《海關估價協議》(正式名稱是《關于實施〈關稅與貿易總協定〉第7條的協定》)規定了成員國需遵守的海關估價方法。它所采用的主要是“實際成 交價格”的方法。

 

 

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