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法律英語閱讀與翻譯教程(33)

 3.國際貿易術語解釋通則

3,INCOTERMS

國際貨物買賣的當事方已經形成了一些特定的貿易術語,并且共同使用這些術語去分配他們之間的權利和義務。這些貿易術語通過多種標準的縮寫形式表達出來,并且每一類的貿易術語都會產生特定的法律后果。最常使用的貿易術語就是CIFFOB。然而,不確定性依然存在:合同的準據法不同,它們對上述貿易術語的解釋也有所不同。例如,美國《統一商法典》上述貿易術語的定義就有別于英國通法對它們的定義。因此,為了避免突,當事方需要規定使用何種定義。際貨物買賣的當事方可選擇采用 COTERMS(《貿易術語解釋的國際規 則》)中規定的定義。INCOTERMS是國際商會出版的一系列國際銷售術語,被國際商事交易廣泛使用。它們被世界范圍內的政府、法律組織和法律實踐者所接受,以解釋國際貿易中最常用的術語。這就減少或者消除了因不同國家對貿易術語的不同解釋所產生的不確定性。

 

Parties to international sales of goods have developed ceratin special trade terms used commonly the allocate rights and duties between themselves. These trade terms have been expressed through various standard abbreviations and each type of term carries with its specific legal consequences. The most common trade terms are CIF and FOB. However , uncertainties may still exist because the interpretation of these terms can vary depending on the law governing the contract. For example, the definitions of these trade terms under the US Uniform Commercial Code are different from their definitions in English common law, so to avoid controversy, the parties should specify which set of definitions are to apply. Parties to international sales of goods can choose to adopt the definitions set out in INCOTERMS: International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms.INCOTERMS are a series of international sales with terms, published by International Chamber of Commerce(ICC) and widely used in international commercial transactions. These are accepted by governments, legal authorities and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. This reduces or removes altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of such terms in different countries.

CISG9條規定,當事方受其其確立的習慣的約束,或者受其知悉的或應當知悉的廣泛用于國際貿易中的習慣的約束。希望使用INCOTERMS的當事方可具體說明INCOTERMS的規定對他們的合同具有約束力。因此,一個受CISG規范的買賣交易也可使用IN COTERMS。

Article 9 of the CISG provides that parties are also bound by practices established between themselves or those widely used in international trade, which they knew or ought to have known. Parties who wish to use INCOTERMS may specify that the provisions of INCOTERMS govern the contract. Hence a sales transaction governed by CISG can incorporate INCOTERMS as well.

INCOTERMS主要是為國際貿易領域內的人們所創設的。國際貿易領域外的人很難理解這些術語。在國際貿易中,諸如“責任”和“交付”之類的看起來平常的單詞,具有不同于在其他領域中使用時的含義。在國際貿易中,“交付”是指賣方完成了銷售的義務,或者是指完成了合同項下的義務。當貨物在公海中的船上,并且有關當事人拒 貨物千里之外時,“交付”就可以進行。

INCOTERMS were created primarily for people inside the world of global trade. Outsiders frequently find them difficult to understand. Seemingly common words such as “responsibility”and”delivery”have different meanings in global trade than they do in other situations. In global trade,”delivery” refers to the seller fulfilling the obligation of sale or to completing a contractual obligation.”Delivery” can occur while the merchandise is on a vessel on the high seas and the parties involved are thousands of miles from the goods.

INCOTERMS對買賣合同的當事人關于已出售貨物交付的權利和義務進行了規定。它們被用來劃分買賣雙方的交易費用和責任,并反映了運輸實踐做法。它們與《聯合國國際貨物買賣合同公約》保持了高度一致。第一版于1936年問世,目前的版本于2010年出版。自201111日,《2010國際貿易術語解釋通則》生效。該版對原先D組的全部 5 個術語作了修正。

INCOTERMS are relating to rights and obligations of the parties to the contract of sale with respect to the delivery of goods sold. They are used to divide transaction costs and responsibilities between buyer and seller and reflect transportation practices. They closely correspond to the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods. The first version was introduced in 1936 and the present dates from 2010. As of January 1,2011, INCOTERMS 2010(the 8st edition) has effect. The changes therein affect all of the five terms previously listed in section D.

 

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