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法律英語閱讀與翻譯教程(22)
第八課  侵權法
Lesson 8  Tort Law
 
在普通法國家,侵權行為是指違反了對其他人負有的民事義務(非合同義 務)的不法行為。侵權行為區別于犯罪行為,后者違反的對象是行為人對整個社會負有的義務。盡管很多行為既可能是侵權行為,也可能是犯罪行為,但對于犯罪行為的起訴通常是國家的責任,由私人起訴的情況很少;然而,任何一個受到傷害的人都可以提起侵權訴訟。實施了侵權行為的人稱為侵權行為人(者)。
1,General Introduction
A tort, in common law jurisdictions , is awrong that involves a breach of a civil duty(other than a contractual duty)owned to someone else. It is differentiated from a crime,which involves a breach of a duty owed to society in general. Though many acts are both torts and crimes, prosecutions for crime are mostly the responsibility of the state, private prosecutions being rarely used;whereas any party who has been injured may bring a lawsuit for tort. One who commits a tortious act is called a tortfeasor.
 
遭受侵權損害的人有權要求造成這些損害的人或人們給付“損害賠償 金”,通常是金錢補償。侵權法的內容包括法定損害的種類及侵權行為人承擔侵權責任的情形。法定損害并不僅限于人身損害。法定損害可能也包括 感情、經濟和聲譽損害,以及對隱私權、財產權和憲法權利所造成的侵犯。因此,侵權案件涉及多種不同的主題,比如交通事故、非法監禁、俳鎊、產品責任 (指對缺陷產品承擔的責任)、版權侵害及環境污染等等。
A person who suffers a tortious injury is entitled to receive”damages”,usually monetary compensation, from the person or people responsible for those injuries. Tort law defines what a legal injury is and, therefore, whether a person may be held liable for an injury he or she has caused. Legal injuries are not limited to physical injuries. They may also include emotional, economic, or reputational injuries as well as violations of privacy, property, or constitutional rights. Tort cases therefore comprise such varied topics as auto accidents,false imprisonment, defamation, product liability(for defective consumer products), copyright infringement, and environmental pollution, among many others.
 
在普通法世界的大部分地區,最為主要的侵權責任就是過失侵權。如果受損害的一方能夠證明其認定的引起損害之人實施了過失行為。換言之,未盡到合理注意去義務而對他人造成損 害的,侵權法即允許補償。
In much of the common law world, the most prominent tort liability is negligence. If the injured party can prove that the person believed to have caused the injury acted negligently, that is, without taking reasonable care to avoid injuring others-tort law will allow compensation.
 
此外,侵權法的內容也包括故意侵權,行為人故意實施了損害他人行為的即屬故意侵權;侵權法的內容還包括“嚴格責任”或者準侵權行為,它允許受害方在無需證明過失存在的情形下即獲得損害賠償金。因此,侵權行為可分為過失侵權行為、故意侵權行為和準侵權行為等。
Furthermore ,tort law also recognizes intentional torts, where a person has intentionally acted in a way that harms another, and “strict liability” or quasi-tort, which allows recovery under certain circumstances without the need to demonstrate negligence. Hence ,torts may be divided into Negligence, Intentional Torts, and Quasi-Torts.
 
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