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法律英語閱讀與翻譯教程(11)

 第五課    刑 法

Lesson 5  Criminal law

Ⅰ.課本及譯文
Ⅰ.Text &Its Translation
   1.概述
   刑法是規定什么是犯罪,有關犯罪嫌疑人之逮捕、起訴及審判,及對已決犯處以何種刑罰的部門法。刑事實體法(刑法)是規定犯罪的法律;刑事程序法(刑事訴訟法)是規定刑事起訴規則的法律。在一個民主社會中,決定何種行為是犯罪行為且處以何種刑罰是立法機關的職能。
1,General Introduction
   Criminal law is the body of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected offenders, and fixes punishment for convicted persons. Substantive criminal law defines particular crimes, and procedural law established rules for the prosecution of crime. In a democratic society, it is the function of legislative bodies to decide what behavior vill be made criminal and what penalties will be attached to violations of the law.
   在某些法域,死刑可能會被適用于最嚴重的犯罪行為。而諸如笞刑或者鞭打刑之類的身體刑或者肉刑仍可能被運用,盡管世界上的絕大部分國家和地區已經廢止了這些刑罰。已處決可能被處以監禁刑,而刑期短則一天長則一生。
   Capital punishment may be imposed in some jurisdictions for the most serious crimes. And physical or corporal punishment may still be imposed such as whipping or caning, although these punishments are prohibited in much of the world. A convict may be incarcerated in prison or jail and the length of incarceration may vary from a day to life.
   刑法是制定該法律之社會一面鏡子。在伊斯蘭教國家(如伊朗)刑法能反映出《古蘭經》的教義;在天主教國家中,刑法可反映天主教的信仰外,刑法的內容會不斷變化,以反映社會的變化,特別是社會觀點的變化。例如吸食**曾經被視為嚴重的犯罪行為,曾被處以重刑,而今天,大多數國家對此行為的處罰相對較輕。隨著公眾對吸食**的容忍度的增加,處罰的嚴厲程度也逐漸降低。隨著社會的發展,社會對于犯罪行為的判決和刑罰也隨之改變。
   Criminal law is a reflection of the society that produces it. In an Islamic theocracy, such as Iran, criminal law will reflect the religious teachings of the Koran; in a Catholic country, it will reflect the tenets of Catholicism. In addition, criminal law will change to reflect changes in society, especially attitude changes. For instance, use of marijuana was once considered a serious crime with harsh penalties, whereas today the penalties in most states are relatively light. As public tolerance of marijuana use grew. As a society advances, its judgments about crime and punishment change.
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