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法律英語閱讀與翻譯教程(8)

 第四課   憲法

Lesson 4    Constitutional Law

Ⅰ.課文及譯文
Ⅰ.Text &Its Translation
  1.概述
  1.General Introduction
   一般而言,“憲法”是指對政性質和范圍進行界定的一整套規則原則。大多數憲法的調整對象是國家機構之間的關系(通常即指行政、立法和司法等部門之間的關系)及上述各部門下屬機構之間的關系。比如說行政部門可以劃分為政府元首、政府各部門、行政機關和文職部門。
   Most commonly, the term constitution refers to a set of rules and principles that define the nature and extent of government. Most constitutions seek to regulate the relationship between institutions of the state, in a basic sense the relationship between the executive, legislature and the judiciary, but also the relationship of institutions within those branches. For example, executive branches can be divided into a head of government, government departments/ministries, executive agencies and a civil service.
   大多數憲法還會調整個人與國家之間的關系,進而確立個體公民的廣泛權利。因此,憲法是一國的根本大法,其他各位階的法律和規則全都產生于憲法。 在一些地區,憲法事實上也被稱作“基 本法”。憲法可能還會規定,某些憲法最基本的原則即使通過修正案的形式 也不得被廢除。一旦某一正式有效的憲法修正案違反了這些原則,該修正案就可能構成一個所謂“違憲的憲法 (修正)”。
   Most constitutions also attempt to define the relationship between individuals and the state, and to establish the broad rights of individual citizens. It is thus the most basic law of a territory from which all the other laws and rules are hierarchically derived; in some territories it is in fact called”Basic Law”. Constitutions may also provide that their most basic principles can never be abolished, even by amendment. In case a formally valid amendment of a constitution infringes these principles protected against any amendment, it may constitute a so-called unconstitutional constitutional law.
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