當前所在位置:首頁 - 信息庫

法律英語閱讀與翻譯教程(7)

3. 聯邦法院體系

3.The Federal Court System
   聯邦法院體系的特點在于它有兩種類型的法院:憲法設立的法院和立法機關設立的法院。憲法設立的法院有時也被稱為“第3條法院”,因為此類法院是根據《憲法》第3條創設的!稇椃ā返3條授權國會“規定和設立”級別低于最高法院的法院!稇椃ā芬惨幎, 最高法院及下級法院的法官“如果行為端正,得以繼續任職”,此即為終身任職的規定,法官非經彈劾程序不得被免職。還有,在憲法設立的法院,法官的薪酬在其“繼續任職期間”不得被國會消減。美國聯邦地區法院、美國聯邦上訴法院和美國聯邦最高法院都屬于憲法設立的法院。
   The federal court system is characterized by two types of courts:constitutional and legislative. Constitutional courts are sometimes referred as Article Ⅲcourts because they are created under Article Ⅲ of Constitution, which authorizes Congress to “ordain and establish” courts inferior to the Supreme Court. The Constitution also states that judges of both the supreme and inferior courts”shall hold their Offices during good Behavior”,which is tantamount to a lifetime appointment, subject to removal only through the impeachment process. Furthermore, Congress may not reduce the salaries of constitutional court judges “during their Continuance in Office”, U.S district courts, U.S. Courts of appeal, and the U.S. Supreme Court are examples of constitutional courts.
   立法機關設立的法院是由國會根據其立法權力創設的。憲法第一條授權國會去制定法律,“……以組織、裝備和訓練民兵”。根據該授權,國會可以管理士兵之目的而設立軍事法庭。立法機關設立的法院與憲法設立的法院主要存在兩點不同:第一,在立法機設立的法院中工作的法官并無終身任職資格,僅有一個固定的任職期限。為保證司法獨立,國會規定的任職期限尤通常都比較長。第二,與憲法設立的法院中的法官不同,在立法機關設立的法院中,法官的薪水并無憲法的保證。
   Legislative court are created by Congress, pursuant to one of its legislative powers. Article I empowers Congress to make all laws”...for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia.” Under that authority, Congress may establish military tribunals for the purpose of disciplining soldiers. Two major distinctions generally differentiate legislative courts from constitutional courts. First , the judges who serve in the legislative courts do not have lifetime appointment, but instead serve fixed terms of office. The length of the term designated by Congress is often a long one in order to ensure judicial independence. The second distinction is that a legislative court judge’s salary is not protected by Constitution, as in the case of constitutional court judges.
   總之,聯邦法院體系的法院都是國會根據憲法第1條或者第3條賦予權力創設的。聯邦法院并不比州法“高級”;聯邦法院與州法院是并行。大多案件是在州法院系統內審理。然而州法院如不能提供救濟的,聯邦法院就是公民可以尋求救濟的另一個替代性的法院。不難發現,南部各州的非洲裔美國人更愿意在聯邦法院,而不是在州法院提起民權訴訟,因為南部各州的法官對非洲裔美國人的權利主張毫無同情心。盡管聯邦制使得問題變得十分復雜,但雙軌制的法院體系為正義最終可得伸張提供了更多的保證。
   In conclusion, the federal court system is composed of courts created by Congress under either Article I or Article Ⅲ powers. The federal courts are not “ superior” to state courts: rather, they exist alongside state courts. The vast majority of cases are tried in state courts. Nevertheless, the federal courts remain an alternative forum that citizens can turn to for relief if state courts prove unresponsive. It is no surprise to discover that southern African Americans preferred to file their civil rights cases in federal rather than state courts, since southern judges were notoriously unsympathetic to African American claims. Despite the confusion caused by federalism, a dual court system provides additional guarantees that justice will eventually prevail.
    歡迎24小時咨詢各類法律文件翻譯,各類合同翻譯報價。法高法律翻譯公司是你身邊最好的翻譯伙伴。

友情鏈接:  法律翻譯   廣州翻譯公司   合同翻譯   大成律師事務所   德恒律師事務所   廣州翻譯公司   福州翻譯公司   中日翻譯   上海翻譯公司   廣州翻譯公司   翻譯公司   大連翻譯公司 

滬公網安備 31011502009851號

号码预测 意甲联赛视频直播音乐 吉林微乐棋牌 胜利足球 腾讯欢乐捕鱼蒸汽时代 手机麻将 98266香港最快开奖结果 辽宁省体育彩票11选5 斗牛牛 新股票上市规则 重庆麻将换三张血战到底技巧