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法律英語閱讀與翻譯教程(6)

2.州法院體系

2.State Court System

   盡管聯邦制允許美國各州建立一個適合自身需要的法院體系,因而并不存在一個“典型”的州法院體系,但一般而言,州法院體系包括幾個層級,或者說幾個審級。州法院可能包括(1)具有有限管轄權的初審法院,(2)具有一般管轄權的初審法院,(3)上訴法院和(4) 州最高法院。通常來說,案件的任何一方當事人都有向初審法院陳述案情的機會,如果他/ 她敗訴,至少還可向其中一級上訴法院陳述案情。最后需要指出,如果州最高法院的判決涉及聯邦法律或者聯邦憲 法問題,那么此項判決可進一步被上訴至聯邦最高法院.
   Although there is no “typical” state court system because federalism allows each state to adopt a court system fitted to its individual needs, a state court system usually includes several levels, or tiers, of courts. State courts may include trial courts of limited jurisdiction, trial courts of general jurisdiction, appellate courts,and the state’s highest court(often called the state supreme court). Generally , and person who is a party to a lawsuit has the opportunities to plead the case before a trial court and then, if he or she loses, before at least one level of appellate court. Finally, if a federal stature or federal constitutional issue is involved in the decision of the state Supreme Court, that decision may be further appealed to the United States Supreme Court. 
   有限管轄權法院
     (1) Courts of limited jurisdiction
   所有州法院的管轄權都在某種程度上受到了限制。任何法院的管轄權都系來自州憲法或者州立法機關通過的制定法,或同時來自上述二者的授權。顧名思義,有限管轄權法院主要用于處理種類有限的案件或專門案件。有限管轄權法院是一級初審法院。
   All state courts have had their jurisdiction limited in some way. The jurisdiction of any court comes from the state constitution or from statutes passed by the state legislature, or both. Courts of limited jurisdiction, as their name implies, are created to handle cases of limited or special nature. Court of limited jurisdiction is the first set of state trial courts.
   最常見的有限管轄權法院是市鎮法院。市鎮法院通常僅限于處理輕微的違法案件或者輕罪案件。市鎮法院通常被稱為“交通法院”,因為它們的主要職能就是聽審一個城市范圍內的涉及交通違法的案件。市鎮法院通常對涉及違反城市條例的案件具有管轄權。
   One of the most common courts of limited jurisdiction is the municipal court. Municipal courts are often limited to minor offenses or misdemeanors. Municipal courts are often referred as”traffic courts”because their main function is to hear cases involving traffic violations within the city limits. Municipal courts frequently have jurisdiction over cases involving violations of city ordinances.
  另外一類有限管轄權法院是縣法院。正如市鎮法院僅在城市的范圍行使管轄權,縣法院在一個縣的范圍行使管轄權?h法院通常比市鎮法擁有更廣泛的管轄權。比如說,在刑事案件中,對于可判處長達一年監禁刑和可判處相對較高罰金刑的犯罪行為,縣法院都可能擁有管轄權。
   Another category of courts of limited jurisdiction includes county courts. Like municipal courts,which are limited to exercising their jurisdiction within city limits, county courts’ jurisdiction is limited to county lines. County courts typically have a greater expanse of jurisdiction than municipal courts. In criminal cases, for example, county courts may have jurisdiction over offenses with penalties as great as one year in prison and relatively high fines.
(2)—般管轄權法院
 Courts of general jurisdiction
    在大多數州的法院系統中,第二層級的法院是指一般管轄權法院。一般轄權法院有權審理屬于州一般司法管轄權范圍內的任何案件。換言之,一般管轄權法院可根據州憲法和法律,對任何可通過司法解決的案件作出裁決。一般管轄權法院是州的主要初審法院。它們可能亦被稱為高等法院、地區法院、巡回法院,或最高法院(在紐約州如此)。一般管轄權法院是又一級初審法院。
   A second level of courts in most state judicial system consists of courts of general jurisdiction. A court of general jurisdiction has the power to hear any case that falls within the general judicial power of the state. That is , a court of general jurisdiction has the authority to render a verdict in any case capable of judicial resolution under the constitution and laws of the state. Courts of general jurisdiction are the major trial courts of the state. They may be called superior courts, district courts, circuit courts, as in the case of New York, supreme courts. Court of general jurisdiction is another set of state trial courts.
上訴法院
   所有的州都有某種上訴機制,初審法院中敗訴的訴訟當事人可在此級法院提起上訴。大多數州在初審法院和州最高上訴法院之間設置了中間上訴法院。中間上訴法院的設置既可保證訴訟當事人至少有一次上訴的權利,又可使一州最高法院無須“訴必親躬”。中間上訴法院篩選審理常規案件,州最高法院則僅審理最為重要的案件.
Appellate courts
   All states have some kind of appeals mechanism available for litigants who were unsuccessful at the trial-court level. Most states have created an intermediate appeals courts between the trial courts and the states highest court of appeal. The purpose of intermediate appeals is to guarantee the litigants the right to at least one appeal while preventing the state’s highest court from having to hear “routine”appeals. These intermediate appellate courts screen out the routine cases so that only the most important cases reach the states’s highest court.
  (4)州最高法院
   每個州都有州最高上訴法院,通常被稱為州最高法院。在大法官的數量、法院的程序等方面,很多州選擇按照美國最高法院的模式去設立其最高法院。州最高的上訴法院通常被稱作最高法院,但也可能有其他叫法。例如,紐約州和馬里蘭州的州最高法院都被稱為“上訴法院”。州最高法院對涉及本州法律的所有問題所作的判決均為終審判決。只有涉及聯邦法律問題時,州最高法院的判決才有可能被聯邦最高法院推翻。
State Supreme(Highest) Courts
   Every state has a highest appellate court, usually called the state supreme court. Many states have chosen to pattern their state’s highest court after the U.S. Supreme Court in the number of justices, procedures, and so forth. The highest appellate court in a state is usually called the Supreme Court but many be called by some other names. For example,in both New York and Maryland, the highest state court is called the court of appeals. The decisions of each state’s highest court on all questions of state law are final. Only when issues of federal law are involved can a decision made by a state’s highest court be overruled by the United States Supreme Court.
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