當前所在位置:首頁 - 信息庫

法律英語閱讀與翻譯教程(2)

第一課  法的概念及其分類

 2.法的分類

   按照不同標準或特征,法可以根據不同的方法進行分類。
 2.Classification of Law
   There are several different ways in which laws can be classified,depending on the criteria or characteristics
   (1)實體法與程序法
   實體法規定何為可為之事,何為不可為之事。例如規定不得謀害性命(除非出于自衛、處于受脅迫狀態或醉態) 的法律即屬實體法。與實體法不同,程序法的內容是指一方提起訴訟時應當遵循的步驟.
    a, Substantive Law vs. Procedural Law
   Substantive law explains what you can and you cannot do. For example, you cannot murder another human being unless it was a self-defense, you were under duress, or if you were drugged by another person. Unlike substantive law, procedural law are just steps that must take place when filing a lawsuit against another party.
  (2)公法與私法
   法可劃分為兩大部門:公法和私法。公法是調整個人與政府間關系的法律,同時還調整政府自身框架及其運作,公法包括憲法、刑法和行政法。私法是調整私人、私人財產以及私人之間關系的法律。
    b, Public Law vs. Private Law
   Law can be divided into two main branches:public law and private law. Public law is the body of law dealing with the relations between private individuals and the government, and with the structure and operation of the government itself, including constitution law, criminal law, and administrative law. Private law is the body of law dealing with private persons and their property and relationships.  
  (3)刑法和民法
    刑法規制的是危害整個社會的行為(向社會承擔的義務)。社會通過稱作“檢察官”(如“地區檢察官”)的政府官員,對違法者提起訴訟。行為人被判有罪(如盜竊罪)的,可被處以監禁刑或罰金刑。與刑法不同,民法調整的是個人間、法人間或個人與法人間的爭議,通常受害者會判得賠償金。例如,車禍中的受害人如向司機主張事故損失或傷害賠償金的,就是一則民事案件。
    c, Criminal Law vs. Civil Law
   Criminal law or penal law defines breaches of duty to society at large. It is society, through government employees called prosecutors(such as district attorneys),that brings court action against violators. If you are found guilty of a crime such as theft, you will be punished by imprisonment or a fine. Civil law,as opposed to criminal law, is the branch of law dealing with disputes between individuals or organizations, in which compensation may be awarded to the victim. For instance, if a car crash victim claims damages against the driver for loss or injury sustained in an accident, this will be a civil law case.
  (4)普通法與大陸法
  普通法是由法官通過法院(及類似 裁判機構)的判決發展起來,而非通過立法機關制定的制定法,或者行政機構的決定發展起來。普通法國家實行“遵循先例”的原則,也就是說,美國等普通法國家是基于先例作出裁決的。因為每一司法意見都是后來裁決的先例,所以,普通法有時也被稱為“法官造法”。盎格魯-美利堅法律植根于普通法的傳統之中。在1881年,奧利弗• 溫德爾•霍姆斯大法官寫道,“法律的生命不是邏輯,而是經驗”。普通法的發展,是對解決時代緊要問題的需要而作出的回應。與普通法不同,大陸法的原則是向全體公民提供可獲得的、成文 的法律合集,這些法律對其有約束力,并要求法官嚴格遵守。
    d, Common Law vs. Civil Law
   Common law is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive branch action. Common law countries prosecute with the concept of “ stare decisis”, which means that these countries such as the United States of America make decisions based on precedents. Because each judicial opinion serves as a precedent for later decisions, as a result, common law is sometimes called judge-made law. Anglo-American law is rooted in the tradition of the common law. In 1881,Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes,Jr. Wrote,”The life of the law has not been logic; It has been experience.” Common law developed as a response to the need to find solutions to the pressing issues of the time. Unlike common law, the principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow.
     歡迎24小時咨詢各類法律文件翻譯,各類合同翻譯報價。法高法律翻譯公司是你身邊最好的翻譯伙伴。

 

友情鏈接:  法律翻譯   廣州翻譯公司   合同翻譯   大成律師事務所   德恒律師事務所   廣州翻譯公司   福州翻譯公司   中日翻譯   上海翻譯公司   廣州翻譯公司   翻譯公司   大連翻譯公司 

滬公網安備 31011502009851號

号码预测 36选7走势图 单机捕鱼游戏无限币版 黑龙江福彩31选7开奖走势图 最准六肖中特免费公开 六合至尊 好运彩彩票app下载安装 六肖中特期期准+王中王:铁 好彩1开出结果 捕鸟陷阱制作视频教程 南粤风采26选5开奖信息